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Table 1 Normal arterial blood gases and serum electrolytes in piglets

From: A novel, clinically relevant use of a piglet model to study the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain

Parameter Normal range Correction
pH 7.35–7.45 Acidosis/alkalosis is usually respiratory; correct with ventilator settings
pCO2 (mmHg) 35–45 Hyper/hypocarbia usually due to ventilator support, correct with ventilator settings
pO2 (mmHg) 200–220 (50 % FiO2) Hyperoxia should be avoided due to possibility of oxygen free radicals. Hypoxia may be corrected by increasing pressure support or positive and expiratory pressure, or temporarily increasing FiO2
HCO3 (mmol/L) 22–33 Perturbations are typically respiratory in nature. Correct ventilator settings accordingly
Sodium (mmol/L) 129–143 Increase or decrease isotonic fluid infusion rate
Potassium (mmol/L) 3.9–4.1 Hyper/hypokalemia are rarely seen intraoperatively, mild perturbations do not need correction
Ionized calcium (mmol/L) 1.1–1.6 For hypocalcemia, consider calcium gluconate 30 mg/kg/dose titrated to laboratory parameters
Glucose (mg/dL) 100–200 Increase or decrease dextrose containing, isotonic fluid infusion rate
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 7–10 In the absence of acute blood loss during surgery, anemia is usually due to a dilutional effect from intravenous fluid administration. No therapy is required