A translational approach to ventilator associated pneumonia
© Piazza and Wang; licensee Springer. 2014
Received: 22 May 2014
Accepted: 14 July 2014
Published: 28 July 2014
The management of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) presents many difficulties because of the heterogeneity of the disease; the way the immunocompromised host and the aggressive ICU environment interact is only partially discovered, the available biomarkers for diagnosis are not sufficient to ensure prompt differentiation between sick patients and patients at risk, the microbiological cultures require invasive techniques and time consuming methods. A translational medicine and bio-informatics approach can enable the identification of the main players of pathology, which may represent novel therapeutic targets or biomarker candidates. Analysis of proteome i.e. allows to individuate proteins that act as biomarkers, for patient-centered research strategies. Similarly, the genomic approach has proved useful to individuate those patients who are prone to develop VAP, and, in the future, we could be able to immunomodulate their responses to save them from nosocomial infections.
VAP (Ventilator Associated Pneumonia) is classically defined as a hospital-acquired pneumonia developing 48 hours or later after the beginning of mechanical ventilation.
Since VAP diagnosis founded on radiographic findings of pneumonia, which have intrinsic variability in technique, interpretation, and reporting, and on clinical signs and symptoms- that are subjective- in 2011 a Working Group of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) proposed a new approach to surveillance for Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE). According to the new CDC definition algorithm, VAP is an Infection-related Ventilator-Associated Complication (IVAC) occurring after 3 days of mechanical ventilation and 2 days before or after the onset of worsening oxygenation, if purulent respiratory secretions with positive cultures or objective signs of respiratory infection have been found . The need for a new and efficacious operative definition is comprehensible, since VAP remains one of the commonest nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit (ICU), affecting 8% to 28% of patients receiving mechanical ventilation . Patients who develop a VAP have significantly more ventilator days, hospital days, and antibiotic days and higher hospital mortality than patients who have not this condition. The hazard for mortality is calculated about 7.2 (95% CI 5.1 - 10.3) for VAP identified by prospective surveillance . Thanks to the generic improvements in critical care , mortality following VAP decreased slightly over time. Even if the “ventilator bundle” (4 items to prevent respiratory complications: stress ulcer prophylaxis, deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis, head-of-bed elevation, daily sedation vacation with weaning assessment), introduced by the Institute for Health Care Improvement, has been partially accepted, there is little evidence of its efficacy up to now  and no specific intervention has been yet individuated to eradicate VAP. Over the past decade, the accuracy of initial antibiotic treatment has been manifest as one of the most consistent prognostic factor: early aggressive therapy with adequate broad-spectrum regimens against the likely pathogens is associated with lower mortality rates and shorter length of hospital stay (LOS). Patients receiving inadequate antibiotic therapy compared with patients receiving adequate antibiotic therapy reported a significantly longer hospital LOS: this was calculated as plus 16.4 days (p = 0.009) for VAP . There is general agreement that the causative agent should be identified at the onset and intensely treated in order to achieve long-lasting remission but prompt diagnosis and individuation of pathogens are still difficult. Diagnostic methods with good sensitivity already exist for VAP: they are the simple clinical criteria, but a biomarker with high specificity it is needed to guide the clinician towards the sources of infection: increasing the specificity of any screening test, the fewer false positive would reduce the cost of antibiotics and invasive diagnostic strategies.
While its is clear the importance of a rapid causative diagnosis, it remains unknown why some intubated patients remain infection free while other develop VAP and other tracheobronchitis . Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is very common in intubated critically ill patients. This infection represents an intermediate process between colonization of lower respiratory tract and VAP. VAT is characterized by increased purulent sputum production and lower respiratory tract inflammation resulting in difficult weaning and prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation.
This area of controversy about the interaction between the patient and his/her intensive care environment is extremely relevant, since the rapid individuation of subject prone to infection should involve the aggressive treatment while patients who have mild and indolent disease need to be identified but not over treated. The role of the underlying disease should be considered as dominant and the primary endpoint in VAP management should ideally be prevention. Areas timely for developing research are strategy for VAP prevention, individuation of biomarkers for early diagnosis and subgroups identification, methods to develop and validate multi-drug resistant pathogens detection on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or serum. We will expose the relevant result of recent clinical translational works that aim to identify novel pathways in VAP diagnosis and treatment.
Biomarkers for VAP diagnosis
As already said, clinical criteria for VAP diagnosis present high sensibility but low specificity. Comorbidities and other concomitant conditions as leukocytosis may influence the evaluation of clinical data; fever in ICU patients is extremely common and radiologic criteria is often misleading. The Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) takes into account some easily available parameters: fever, leukocytosis, tracheal aspirates, oxygenation, radiographic infiltrates, and may increase the specificity of diagnosis when the sum of individual scores is higher than 6. The initial data, published by Plugin et al.  were not confirmed later in larger studies and, to increase the CPIS specificity, the semi-quantitative cultures of tracheal aspirates with Gram stain was introduced, still with limited efficacy . The weak point of CPIS is probably the inter-individual variability, since a subjective evaluation is required when we are judging the quality of tracheal secretion (purulent/not purulent) and the presence of infiltrate at chest ray.
Since clinical criteria are not specific enough, the need for a simple clinical tool for the diagnosis of VAP is evident. A perfect biomarker (not expensive, not invasive, which helps to avoid excess antibiotic use and assist in the conduct of clinical research) is still lacking, but various biological elements have been proposed, among which Procalcitonin, Pentraxin3, and Soluble Triggering Expressed on Myeloid Cells Type 1 are the most cited in the literature.
Procalcitonin (PTC) is a pro-hormone, precursor of Calcitonin. PTC is synthesised in virtually all organs and in macrophages in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli, particularly stimuli of bacterial origin. In a metanalysis of 7 studies (373 patients, 434 episodes), Sotillo- Diaz et al.  found that high plasma PCT levels were associated to an increased risk of suffering ventilator-associated pneumonia (OR: 8.39; 95% CI: 5.4-12.6). Sensitivity and specificity were 76% (69–82) and 79% respectively. Even if these values are fairly acceptable, we should also consider that the CPIS score in selected population (i.e. brain injury)  scores even better: 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity and question the role of PCT as unique screening test for VAP early diagnosis .
The diagnosis of VAP is not the only field of application of PTC: it could be used for prognosis and to follow antibiotic therapy. Using the combination of PCT plus CPIS may be more powerful than PTC by itself: Su et al.  in 2012 demonstrated that procalcitonin levels plus the CPIS score was reliable for prognostic assessment (28-day survival), in sepsis patient with VAP.
Assuming the patients meet the clinical criteria for VAP, the PTC level could guide the duration of antibiotic therapy, allowing a safe individualised strategy for VAP. Pugh et al.  reviewed three RCTs which investigated strategies to reduce antibiotic exposure on the basis of procalcitonin: the experimental strategy advocated discontinuing antibiotic therapy when the serum PTC level was below a cut-off value (0,5 or 0.25 μg/L, depending on the investigators) or fell to less than 20% of the level on Day 0. Duration of antibiotic therapy was significantly shorter in patients treated according to PTC-guided strategy than for patients allocated to standard therapy (durations of therapy for the procalcitonin groups 9.2 days versus 12.1 days).
Taking the data all together, PTC looks useful but not unequivocal as a biomarker for VAP diagnosis. The explanation could be that PTC is a part of pro-inflammatory response of the immune system and it could be seen as an assistant to host, in recognition of invasion by bacteria, discriminating viral from bacterial infections. Nevertheless this hypothesis is just speculative and we need to understand how PTC really “works” during VAP.
Pentatraxin 3 (PTX3) is a protein targeted to inflammation and has been proposed as an alternative biomarker for VAP diagnosis. PTX3 is a member of the long pentraxin subfamily while the C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototype of short pentraxin and has been widely used, with limited diagnostic and prognostic specificity in infectious diseases.
PTX3 is released by mononuclear phagocytes, neutrophils, epithelial and endothelial cells in response to inflammatory signals; PTX3 recognizes microbial molecules, activates the classical pathway of complement and facilitates recognition by macrophages and dendritic cells. Lin et al.  performed the measurement of PTX3 and CRP levels in plasma from 136 consecutive patients receiving mechanical ventilation > 48 hours in a prospective single centre study. PTX3 > 16.43 ng/ml showed specificity of 74.0% and sensitivity of 68.6%, not superior to CRP as a biomarker to diagnose VAP. The authors admit some limitations of this single centre study and propose a larger trial, which at the moment is lacking. Nevertheless, PTX3 is not a specific marker for bacterial infection. Elevated plasma PTX3 concentrations are seen in various inflammatory conditions, which can be concomitant to VAP diagnosis, making PTX3 a marker not enough specific for this complication.
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM) is a glycoprotein member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. TREM expression is up-regulated in the presence of extracellular bacteria and fungi and some inflammatory conditions. In response to infection, soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) can then be measured in body fluids, while sTREM-1 levels are not detectable at baseline in normal individuals.
In Palazzo et al. paper, sTREM-1 levels did not discriminate VAP when compared to quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage (commonly used as the gold standard) . Using a cutoff value of 204 pg/mL for BALF sTREM-1 levels resulted in sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 23%.
In conclusion, up to now no biomarker has yet improved our clinical capacity to diagnose VAP: biologic markers have been suggested to improve recognition of patients with true infection and facilitate decisions of whether or not to treat. Unfortunately, neither PCT, PTX3 or sTREM-1 fulfill all expectations.
In the recent years, it is been recognized that the multivariate model is more promising than a single biomarker for risk assessment of disease. This multi-biomarker approach has progressed by recent advances in clinical proteomics. Proteomics is a branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics to analyzing the structure, function, and interactions of the proteins produced by the genes of a particular cell, tissue, or organism, with organizing the information in databases, and with applications of the data (as in medicine or biology) . In 2008 Lu et al. published the first global description of the BAL proteome from patients with VAP: they identified 206 proteins, defining the global proteome map of BAL. Four selected proteins (gelsolin, serum amyloid P-component, vitamin D-binding protein and pyruvate kinase)  were significantly higher in BAL from patients with VAP (p < 0.05). Applying a modern proteomic approach Nguyen et al.  identified a proteomic “signature” that discriminated VAP(+) from VAP(−) patients in Acute Lung Injury patients: it is constituted by three BAL proteins: S100A8, lactotransferrin (LTF), and actinin 1 (ACTN1).
The proteomic approach needs computational analyses to became really powerful and study the proteome during VAP. This integrative methodology is a strategy to differentiate clinically relevant subsets of patients.
Metabolomics is the quantitative analysis of a large number of low molecular mass metabolite, substrates or products in metabolic pathways. It’s important to note that Rogers et al. recently published a metabolomic study in critically ill patients : they formed a metabolomic network of 7 metabolites associated with death (gamma-glutamylphenylalanine, gamma-glutamyltyrosine, 1-arachidonoylGPC(20:4), taurochenodeoxycholate, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) lactate, sucrose, kynurenine). This network achieved a 91% AUC predicting 28-day mortality. Similar studies are still lacking in the field of VAP but would be a very practical and interesting translational approach application.
Prompt identification of VAP caused by MDR bacteria
CDC Algorithm for VAP diagnosis []
1= Purulent respiratory secretions AND one of the following:
2= One of the following (without requirement for purulent respiratory secretions):
• Positive culture of endotracheal aspirate, ≥ 105 CFU/ml *
• Positive pleural fluid culture
• Positive culture of bronchoalveolar lavage, ≥ 104 CFU/ml*
• Positive lung histopathology
• Positive culture of lung tissue, ≥ 104 CFU/ml*
• Positive diagnostic test for Legionella spp.
• Positive culture of protected specimen brush, ≥ 103 CFU/ml*
• Positive diagnostic test on respiratory secretions for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus
A clear example comes from the difficult management of VAP caused by Acinetobacter baumannii, a resilient Gram-negative cocco-bacillus, responsible of serious nosocomial infection, among which is included VAP . Transmission of A. baumannii in association with contamination of hospital equipment or cross-transmission among patients is easy and common. This spread is linked to the capacity of bacteria to survive in dry environments and their need for simple growth conditions and to withstand disinfection and to persist in the hospital environment. A. baumannii shows a broad spectrum of resistance to antimicrobial agents: carbapenems have been reported as the most appropriate choice for the treatment, but in A. baumannii resistance to carbapenems may be conferred by some carbapenemases (metalloenzymes) that hydrolyze imipenem and meropenem. In case of CRAB (carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii), colistin is the drug of choice to cure the infection even if it has severe collateral effects and a large rate of failures . Then, A. Baumanni infections need to be rapidly identified, in order to treat the pathogens and cure the patients but also limit the spread, which can cause a micro-epidemic within the ICU. Nevertheless, resistant A. baumannii needs to be promptly isolated and the resistant strains have to be identified to allow the use of colistin or combination of drugs since the first day of VAP diagnosis, not waiting for the time (3–4 days, depending on the institution) necessary for obtaining the results of culture and sensitivity. The importance to start the correct regimen immediately is evident in a serious and potentially epidemic disease as VAP caused by MDR organism but the clinical routine has not yet the tools to get simplification of the causative diagnosis. Promising new techniques and the application of translational methods to daily practice may overcome some difficulties. Real-time PCR, hybridization and mass spectrometry-based platforms are methods providing quantitative results, which can support organism identification and detect bacterial resistance directly from clinical specimens .
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) i.e. may reduce the time for microbiological diagnosis, allowing to start immediately the right antibiotics and avoiding unnecessary overtreatment. Kwon et al. tried qPCR for etiologic diagnosis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia on bronchoalveolar lavage or bronchial washing samples . Molecular identification of MRSA was based on the presence of the mecA and femA-SA gene, with the absence of the femA-SE gene. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay were 88.9% and 88.9% respectively (compared with quantitative cultures). Applying this assay to BAL analysis certainly improves the diagnosis but it does not avoid the use of invasive technique as bronchoscopy. To identify pathogen-derived volatile biomarkers in breath would be a non- invasive method to diagnose VAP. Filipiak et al. made in vitro experiments with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (bacteria most frequently found in VAP patients) to investigate the release or consumption of volatile organic compounds by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The Authors concluded that: “the detection and perhaps even identification of bacteria could be achieved by determination of characteristic volatile metabolites, supporting the clinical use of breath-gas analysis as a non-invasive method for early detection of bacterial lung infections” . Chromatography for microbiological definition appears as a very interesting application of a translational technique to VAP microbiological diagnosis.
Pathogenesis of VAP and its prevention in a genomic perspective
The relevance of VAP pushed the development of a national programme in the USA to reduce its incidence . Many efforts have been proved inefficacious or controversial (e.g. selective digestive decontamination) till now. Nevertheless, counteracting the pathogenetic pathways and limiting the risk factors sounds a reasonable option. The first measure to reduce VAP is to limit exposure to mechanical ventilation by preferring non-mechanical ventilation when possible and limiting its duration. Other prevention practices aim at reducing airways colonisation (such as hygiene before manipulating airways and oral care decontamination using chlorhexidine), or preventing aspiration (e.g. by nursing in the semirecumbent position, or maintaining a sufficient cuff pressure).
Martin Loaches et al. compared VAP/VAT gene expression using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays . Comparison of gene expression profiles in the pre-infection period revealed 5595 genes expressed differentially between VAP and VAT. The Authors reported that patients who developed VAP had immune impairment in the pre-infection period, with a lower expression of genes involved in the complement system, compared to patients developing simple tracheobronchitis.
Review and conclusion
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Ventilator-Associated Event (VAE). 2014, 10: 1–46.http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/pdfs/pscManual/10-VAE_FINAL.pdfGoogle Scholar
- Di Bonito M, Caiazzo S, Iannazzone M, Miccichè V, De Marco G, De Robertis E, Tufano R, Piazza O: Prognostic differences between VAP from acinetobacter baumanii and VAP from other microorganisms. Transl Med UniSa. 2012, 3: 15–21.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klein Klouwenberg PM, van Mourik MS, Ong DS, Horn J, Schultz MJ, Cremer OL, Bonten MJ, on behalf of the MARS consortium: Electronic implementation of a novel surveillance paradigm for ventilator-associated events: feasibility and validation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014, 189(8):947–955.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberger LH, Hranjec T, McLeod MD, Politano AD, Guidry CA, Davies S, Sawyer RG: Improvements in pulmonary and general critical care reduces mortality following ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2013, 74(2):568–574.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Croce MA, Brasel KJ, Coimbra R, Adams CA Jr, Miller PR, Pasquale MD, McDonald CS, Vuthipadadon S, Fabian TC, Tolley EA: National trauma institute prospective evaluation of the ventilator bundle in trauma patients: does it really work? J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2013, 74(2):354–360.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Piskin N, Aydemir H, Oztoprak N, Akduman D, Comert F, Kokturk F, Celebi G: Inadequate treatment of ventilator-associated and hospital-acquired pneumonia: risk factors and impact on outcomes. BMC Infect Dis. 2012, 12: 268.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin-Loeches I, Papiol E, Almansa R, López-Campos G, Bermejo-Martin JF, Rello J: Intubated patients developing tracheobronchitis or pneumonia have distinctive complement system gene expression signatures in the pre-infection period: a pilot study. Med Intensiva 2012, 36(4):257–263.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pugin J, Auckenthaler R, Mili N, Janssens JP, Lew PD, Suter PM: Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia by bacteriologic analysis of bronchoscopic and nonbronchoscopic “blind” bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991, 143(5 Pt 1):1121–1129.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF: Ventilator-associated pneumonia: the clinical pulmonary infection score as a surrogate for diagnostics and outcome. Clin Infect Dis. 2010, 51(Suppl 1):S131-S135.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sotillo-Díaz JC, Bermejo-López E, García-Olivares P, Peral-Gutiérrez JA, Sancho-González M, Guerrero-Sanz JE: Role of plasma procalcitonin in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Systematic review and metaanalysis. Med Intensiva 2014, 38(6):337–346.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pelosi P, Barassi A, Severgnini P, Gomiero B, Finazzi S, Merlini G, d’Eril GM, Chiaranda M, Niederman MS: Prognostic role of clinical and laboratory criteria to identify early ventilator-associated pneumonia in brain injury. Chest 2008, 134(1):101–108.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zielińska-Borkowska U, Skirecki T, Złotorowicz M, Czarnocka B: Procalcitonin in early onset ventilator-associated pneumonia. J Hosp Infect 2012, 81(2):92–97.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Su LX, Meng K, Zhang X, Wang HJ, Yan P, Jia YH, Feng D, Xie LX: Diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients with sepsis. Am J Crit Care 2012, 21(6):e110-e119.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pugh R, Grant C, Cooke RP, Dempsey G: Short-course versus prolonged-course antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011., 10: CD007577 CD007577Google Scholar
- Lin Q, Fu F, Shen L, Zhu B: Pentraxin 3 in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia: an early marker of severity. Heart Lung 2013, 42(2):139–145.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palazzo SJ, Simpson TA, Simmons JM, Schnapp LM: Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) as a diagnostic marker of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Respir Care 2012, 57(12):2052–2058.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Anderson NL, Anderson NG: Proteome and proteomics: new technologies, new concepts, and new words”. Electrophoresis 1998, 19(11):1853–1861.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lu YT, Han CL, Wu CL, Yu TM, Chien CW, Liu CL, Chen YJ: Proteomic profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia by gel-assisted digestion and 2-D-LC/MS/MS. Proteomics Clin Appl 2008, 2(9):1208–1222.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen EV, Gharib SA, Palazzo SJ, Chow YH, Goodlett DR: Schnapp LMProteomic profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia. PLoS One 2013, 8(3):e58782. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058782 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058782PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogers AJ, McGeachie M, Baron RM, Gazourian L, Haspel JA, Nakahira K, Fredenburgh LE, Hunninghake GM, Raby BA, Matthay MA, Otero RM, Fowler VG, Rivers EP, Woods CW, Kingsmore S, Langley RJ, Choi AM: Metabolomic derangements are associated with mortality in critically ill adult patients. PLoS One 2014, 9(1):e87538.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barbier F, Andremont A, Wolff M, Bouadma L: Hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia: recent advances in epidemiology and management. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2013, 19(3):216–228.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cataldi M, Sblendorio V, Leo A, Piazza O: Biofilm-dependent airway infections: a role for ambroxol? Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2014, 28(2):98–108.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lambiase A, Rossano F, Piazza O, Del Pezzo M, Catania MR, Tufano R: Typing of pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with VAP in an intensive care unit. New Microbiol 2009, 32(3):277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lambiase A, Piazza O, Rossano F, Del Pezzo M, Tufano R, Catania MR: Persistence of carbapenem-resistant acinetobacter baumannii strains in an Italian intensive care unit during a forty-six month study period. New Microbiol 2012, 35(2):199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aydemir H, Akduman D, Piskin N, Comert F, Horuz E, Terzi A, Kokturk F, Ornek T, Celebi G: Colistin vs. the combination of colistin and rifampicin for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia. Epidemiol Infect 2013, 141(6):1214–1222.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lung M, Codina G: Molecular diagnosis in HAP/VAP. Curr Opin Crit Care 2012, 18(5):487–494.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kwon SJ, Jeon T, Seo D, Na M, Choi EG, Son JW, Yoo EH, Park CG, Lee HY, Kim JO, Kim SY, Kang J: Quantitative PCR for etiologic diagnosis of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in intensive care unit. Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2012, 72(3):293–301.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Filipiak W, Sponring A, Baur MM, Filipiak A, Ager C, Wiesenhofer H, Nagl M, Troppmair J, Amann A: Molecular analysis of volatile metabolites released specifically by staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. BMC Microbiol. 2012, 12: 113.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mortensen BL, Skaar EP: Host-microbe interactions that shape the pathogenesis of acinetobacter baumannii infection. Cell Microbiol 2012, 14(9):1336–1344.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swanson JM, Wood GC, Xu L, Tang LE, Meibohm B, Homayouni R, Croce MA, Fabian TC: Developing a gene expression model for predicting ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patients: a pilot study. PLoS One 2012, 7(8):e42065.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.