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Table 1 The anti-cancer effect of fucoidan from brown seaweeds on its cancer target and inhibitory mechanism/reaction

From: Clinical applications of fucoidan in translational medicine for adjuvant cancer therapy

Cancer type Research method Fucoidan source Anti-cancer mechanism/reaction References
Acute leukemia In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Induction of apoptosis [18]
Lymphoma In vitro and in vivo Fucus vesiculosus Oral administration of fucoidan inhibited tumor growth [19, 20]
Head and neck cancer In vitro and in vivo Fucus vesiculosus Injection of fucoidan-based nanoparticles inhibited tumor growth [21]
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma In vitro and in vivo Laminaria japonica Injection of fucoidan inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis [22]
Oral cancer In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Caspase-dependent apoptosis [23]
Lung cancer In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Inhibition of tumor migration and invasion [24]
In vitro Turbinaria conoides Induction of apoptosis [27]
In vitro and in vivo Fucus vesiculosus
Laminaria japonica
Oral administration of fucoidan modulated the TGFR/Smad7/Smurf2-dependent axis, leading to TGFR protein degradation and inhibition of lung cancer cell progression [26]
Human Laminaria japonica Survival rates of the lung cancer patients using cisplatin and fucoidan (oral administration) were increased by approximately 50% compared with those of the patients using cisplatin alone [25]
Breast cancer In vitro and in vivo Fucus vesiculosus
Laminaria japonica
Injection of fucoidan decreased tumor cell metastasis by enhancing ubiquitin-dependent TGF-β receptor degradation [28]
In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Higher branching degree of fucoidan had greater cytotoxicity of tumor cell [29]
Gastric cancer In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Induction of apoptosis and autophagy [31]
Hepatoblastoma In vitro Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle [32]
Hepatocellular carcinoma In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Induction of apoptosis [33]
Cholangiocarcinoma In vitro Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle [32]
Prostate cancer   Undaria pinnatifida Injection of fucoidan decreased tumor volume and increased apoptosis [34]
Colorectal carcinoma In vitro Saccharina cichorioides Low molecular weight fucoidan exhibited more anti-proliferation than native fucoidan [35]
In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Induction of apoptosis and decreased angiogenesis [36]
Renal cancer In vitro Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle [32]
Ovarian cancer In vitro Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle [32]
Cervical cancer Human Nemacystis decipiens Clinical improvement in cancer patients through integrated medicine, mainly using low molecular weight fucoidan supplements [37]
Bladder cancer In vitro Fucus vesiculosus Induction of G1 arrest of the cell cycle through down-regulation of pRB phosphorylation [38]
Gallbladder cancer In vitro Cladosiphon okamuranus tokida Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle [32]