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Table 1 Summary of advantages, disadvantages and current clinical trials for the various sources of stem cells mentioned in this article

From: Therapeutic use of stem cells for cardiovascular disease

Cell type Advantages Disadvantages Current clinical trials
Embryonic stem cells Effectively differentiate into all three primary germ layers Ethical/political issues surrounding the use of these cells ESCORT
iPSs Demonstrate an embryonic-like state and can be derived from somatic cells
Strong regenerative capacity and integration within host cardiomyocytes
Risk of teratoma formation, thus there is a need to direct differentiation before transplantation None
MSCs Immunomodulatory characteristics permits the potential to use allogeneic cells
Self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation properties
More studies needed to support the efficacy of these cells on a long-term basis BOOST, REPAIR-AMI,
 Bone marrow Immunomodulatory characteristics
Easy to isolate via liposuction
Rich source of stem cells
MySTromalCell Trial
The Precise Trial
 Adipose tissue
CSCs Express cardiac specific markers and can thus differentiate more effectively into cardiomyocytes compared to other cell types Difficult to isolate/extract cells
Need for ex vivo expansion before transplantation, which can be costly
  1. iPSs induced pluripotent stem cells; MSCs mesenchymal stem cells; CSCs cardiac stem cells