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Table 1 Common inflammatory cells/mediators in COPD, CVD and lung cancer

From: Inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its role in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer

  COPD CVD Lung cancer
Inflammatory cell
 Macrophage Primary producer of inflammatory mediators in COPD, M1/M2 function Major producer of inflammatory mediators, important in plaque rupture Primary inflammatory cell in lung cancer, TAM1/TAM2 function
 Neutrophil Key role in exacerbations, produces IL-8, elastase May have role in precipitating acute coronary events Proinflammatory, produces IL-8, elastase
 T cell Key driver of inflammation in advanced disease, major source of cytokines Infiltration of plaques CD8+ cells important in killing tumor cells, secretor of cytokines
Inflammatory mediator
 TNF-α Marked proinflammatory effect Proinflammatory, affects endothelial function Proinflammatory, promotes carcinogenesis
 IL-1 Proinflammatory effect Proinflammatory, affects endothelial function Enhances tumorigenesis and ROS/proteases
 IL-6 Proinflammatory effect Proinflammatory affects endothelial function Enhances tumorigenesis (STAT3), inflammation
 ROS Damages lung tissue Proinflammatory, damages endothelium Damages DNA, enhances tumorigenesis
 Proteases Causes emphysema Role in plaque instability Promote tumor angiogenesis/metastasis
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, M1/M2 types one and two macrophage subsets, TAM tumor-associated macrophages, IL interleukin, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, STAT signal transducers and activators of transcription, ROS reactive oxygen species.