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Table 2 Biomaterial influence on macrophage phenotype

From: The significance of macrophage phenotype in cancer and biomaterials

Biomaterial property Macrophage response
Large fibers and pores (PDO) M2 response, wound healing, angiogenesis [123]
Fiber size
~0.6 μm (PLLA) Minimal M1 activation, low FBGC population [121]
~1.6 μm (PLLA) High FBGC population [121]
Hydrogels with pores (30–40 μm) (pHEMA-co-MAA) M2 dominated, maximum vascularization, minimum fibrotic response [132]
Microgel coating (pNIPAm-co-PEGDA) Reduction of M1 activation and cytokine secretion [124]
Zwitterionic hydrogels Anti-inflammatory, pro-healing M2 macrophages, angiogenesis, no fibrous capsule [125]
Subintestinal submucosa  
Crosslinked with carbodiimide M1 bias, chronic inflammation, prolonged healing [24]
Non-crosslinked M2 bias, constructive remodeling [24]
Acetylated chitosan  
5% acetylated Predominately M2, reduced fibrous capsule [122],[142]
15% acetylated Presence of M1 macrophages [122],[142]
Glutaraldehyde crosslinked collagen M1/M2 balance, improved vascularization [143]
Biologically-derived scaffolds  
Porcine submucosa, urinary bladder M2, timely constructive tissue remodeling [23]
Human, porcine dermis M1, prolonged healing [23]