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Table 1 Examples of application for genetics in the pathogenisis of ALI in 2011

From: Bioinformatics insights into acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

Genes Technologies Relationship with ALI Ref.
NADPH oxidase NOX2 subunit knockout mice NOX-2(-/-) mice exhibited diminished TNF alpha-induced acute inflammatory responses in the lungs but not other tissues, as evidenced by decreased activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappa B, and decreased gene expression of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF alpha, E-selectin, and other cellular adhesion molecules. [33]
ANGPT SNP array performed in ALI and non-ALI patients An ANGPT2 region is associated with both ALI and variation in plasma angiopoietin-2 isoforms. [31]
Fas (CD95) Genptyped 14 SNPs in FAS in healthy white volunteers and patients with ALI Common genetic variants in FAS are associated with ALI susceptibility [32]
Surfactant protein B (SPB) Genotyping was performed on seven linkage isequilibrium-tag SNP in the surfactant protein B gene SPB are associated with more severe lung injury as indicated by the association of specific SNP genotypes and haplotypes with the need for mechanical ventilation in African American children with community-acquired pneumonia. [34]
Acvr1, Arhgap15, Cacnb4, Cacybp, Ccdc148,Fancl, Mycn, Mgat4a, Rfwd2, Tgfbr3, and Tnn haplotype association mapping, microarray/qRT-PCR analyses, in silico SNP 11 candidate genes are associated with acrolein-induced acute lung injury in 40 different inbred strains of mice [35]
IRAKs tagging SNPs array common SNPs in IRAK3 gene might be determinants for sepsis-induced ALI. association with ALI development among septic patients [36]
nmMLCK nmMLCK knockout mice, nmMLCK silencing RNA nmMLCK knockout mice were significantly protected from VILI, [37]
  1. Abbreviations: Ref:Reference; ANGPT:angiopoietin; NADPH:glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; NOX:NADPH oxidases; TNF-alpha:tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-1:interleukin-1; IL-6:interleukin-6; SPB:Surfactant protein B; Acvr1: activin A receptor, type 1; ARHGAP15:Rho GTPase activating protein 15; CACNB4:calcium channel, voltage-dependent, β 4 subunit; CACYBP:calcyclin binding protein; CCDC148:coiled-coil domain containing 148; FANCL: Fanconi anemia, complementation group L; MYCN:v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (avian); MGAT4A: mannoside acetylglucosaminyltransferase 4, isoenzyme A; RBMSl:RNA binding motif, single stranded interacting protein 1; RFWD2:Ring finger and WD repeat domain 2; TGFBR3:transforming growth factor-β receptor III; TNN: tenascin N; IRAKs: interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase genes; nmMLCK: non-muscle myosin light chain kinase isoform; VILI:ventilator induced lung injury.