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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of group [SMD (BMD)], group [SMD (t-score)] and group [SMD (z-score)]

From: Bone mineral density is negatively correlated with ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 No. of studiesSMD (95% CI)PPheterogeneityI2 (%)
Group (SMD [BMD])
 Total13− 0.24 (− 0.44, − 0.04)0.0210.00261.7
 Place
  Lumber spine9− 0.17 (− 0.35,0.02)0.0720.02126.3
  Femoral neck4− 0.38 (− 0.91, 0.16)0.169< 0.00184
 Region
  Europe12− 0.25 (− 0.47, − 0.04)0.0210.00164.5
  America1− 0.03 (− 0.64, 0.58)0.918  
 Average age (years old)
  < 4510− 0.16 (− 0.39, 0.07)0.1730.00264.7
  ≥ 453− 0.52 (− 0.83, − 0.22)0.0010.6270
 BMI (kg/m2)
  < 257− 0.24 (− 0.56, 0.08)0.1390.00172.4
  ≥ 254− 0.08 (− 0.31, 0.14)0.470.29718.6
Group (SMD [T-score])
 Total7− 0.55 (− 0.72, − 0.37)< 0.0010.90
 Place
  Lumber spine4− 0.50 (− 0.72, − 0.28)< 0.0010.8270
  Femoral neck2− 0.67 (− 0.99, − 0.35)< 0.0010.4940
 Region
  Europe6− 0.53 (− 0.72, − 0.34)< 0.0010.8420
  Asia1− 0.63 (− 1.08, − 0.18)0.006  
 Average age (years old)
  < 454− 0.55 (− 0.76, − 0.34)< 0.0010.9150
  ≥ 453− 0.55 (− 0.85, − 0.24)< 0.0010.430
 BMI (kg/m2)
  < 253− 0.53 (− 0.77, − 0.28)< 0.0010.8380
  ≥ 251− 0.38 (− 0.79, 0.03)0.069  
Group (SMD [Z-score])
 Total6− 0.38 (− 0.56, − 0.19)< 0.0010.3923.9
 Place
  Lumber spine4− 0.36 (− 0.59, − 0.14)0.0020.3538.1
  Femoral neck2− 0.40 (− 0.72, − 0.09)0.0120.16947.2
 Average age (years old)
  < 453− 0.33 (− 0.56, − 0.09)0.0060.22632.8
  ≥ 453− 0.46 (− 0.76, − 0.16)0.0030.4220
 BMI (kg/m2)
  < 253− 0.33 (− 0.56, − 0.09)0.0060.22632.8
  ≥ 251− 0.30 (− 0.70, 0.11)0.151