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Fig. 1 | Clinical and Translational Medicine

Fig. 1

From: Mesenchymal stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a review of current literature and potential future treatment options

Fig. 1

Effects of MSC-derived EVs in ARDS. After an injury, MSCs are mobilized from their specific niches [bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue, etc.], and transit via the blood to the site of injury. They participate in the tissue repair process, either directly or in a paracrine manner by releasing EVs. Also, under disease conditions, LR-MSCs migrate into the alveolar space and function hand-in-hand with the type II epithelial cells in a paracrine manner by releasing EVs to achieve epithelial repair following injury. The EVs interact/are internalized into the target cells such as endothelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. The net effects are decreased apoptosis, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, improved barrier function and increased proliferation. The cellular crosstalk between the airway epithelium and vascular endothelium and how the behavior of endothelial and epithelial cells is affected by the EVs interaction are not understood. (LR-MSC: lung resident MSC; BM-MSC: bone marrow-derived MSC; EpiC: epithelial cells; EC: endothelial cells)

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