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Fig. 4 | Clinical and Translational Medicine

Fig. 4

From: New therapeutic targets for cancer: the interplay between immune and metabolic checkpoints and gut microbiota

Fig. 4

Role of gut microbiota in tumor progression/protection. Gut microbiota affects systemic inflammation, immune homeostasis and immune regulation. Therefore, eubiosis or dysbiosis of gut microbiota plays a significant role in protection from tumor growth or tumor progression, respectively. Furthermore, effectiveness of chemo- and immuno-therapy approaches is also at least partly governed by the state of gut microbiota. Modulation of gut microbiota through nutrition or ingestions of beneficial microbes may serve as important therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment alone or as an adjunct to chemo- and/or immuno-therapy

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