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Table 1 Major acellular contributors to metastasis

From: The role of liver microenvironment in hepatic metastasis

Name Possible involvement References
CEA Attachment of CTC to fibronectin [5, 6]
CXCL8 (IL-8) Tumor proliferation [8]
VEGF Angiogenesis [9]
MAPK Promotion of EMT [9]
TGF-β
NF-κB
PAD Catalyze citrullination of proteins [10, 11]
MMP-2 Increased protein turnover in ECM [13]
Periostin
MMP-9
Type I collagen Induce metastatic properties of surrounding environment [14, 41]
Type IV collagen [15]
Major cellular contributors to metastasis
 Kupffer cells, TAM M1 to M2 transition circumvents immunogenic response [4, 12, 16, 18, 42]
 TAM Immunosuppressive properties [19, 25, 26]
 TAN
 MDSC
 LSEC Increase angiogenesis, induce EMT [4]
 HSC Progenitors of CAF [21, 22]