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Table 2 Biotherapies and small molecule inhibitors against secreted mediators or immune cells and their approval for rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis

From: The use of leukocytes’ secretome to individually target biological therapy in autoimmune arthritis: a case report

Target Agent Structure Mechanism of action Approval for RA Approval for PsoA
FDA Health Canada FDA Health Canada
TNF Etanercept Fusion protein Fc IgG1-TNFR2 Decoy receptor Nov 1998 Dec 2000 Jan 2002 Mar 2004
Infliximab Chimeric mAb to TNF Antagonist Nov 1999 Sep 2001 May 2005 Jun 2006
Adalimumab Humanized mAb to TNF Jan 2003 Sep 2004 Oct 2005 Jun 2006
Golimumab Human mAb to TNF Apr 2009 Apr 2009 Oct 2017 Apr 2009
Certolizumab pegol Pegylated Fab’ fragment of humanized mAb to TNF May 2009 Sep 2009 Sep 2013 Jan 2014
IL-1 Anakinra Recombinant human IL-1 receptor Receptor antagonist Nov 2001 Jun 2002
Canakinumab Human mAb to IL-1β Antagonist
Rilonacept Fusion protein Fc IgG1 linked to ligand-binding domains of IL-1R1 and IL-1RAcP     
CTLA-4 Abatacept Fusion protein Fc IgG1-CTLA-4 Binds CD80 and CD86 on APCs; prevents co-stimulation of T cells Dec 2005 Jun 2006 Jul 2017 Mar 2018
CD20 Rituximab Chimeric mAb to CD20 Binds CD20 on B cells; triggers cell death Feb 2006 Jun 2006
Ocrelizumab Humanized mAb to CD20
Ofatunumab Human mAb to CD20
Obinutuzumab Humanized mAb to CD20 with a glycoengineered Fc
IL-6 Tocilizumab Humanized mAb to IL-6 receptor Receptor antagonist Jan 2010 May 2010
Sarilumab Human mAb to IL-6 receptor May 2017 Feb 2017
IL-12, IL-23 Ustekinumab Human mAb to IL-12 and IL-23 p40 subunit Antagonist Sep 2013 Jan 2014
IL-17 Secukinumab Human mAb to IL-17A Antagonist Jan 2016 Apr 2016
Ixekizumab Human mAb to IL-17A Dec 2017 Jun 2018
Brodalumab Human mAb to IL-17 receptor A Receptor antagonist
Janus kinase 1–3 Tofacitinib Small molecule Intracellular inhibitor; blocks activity of cytokines (IL-2, -4, -6, -7, -9, -10, -12, -15, -21, -23, IFN-α, -β, -γ) Nov 2012 Apr 2014 Dec 2017 Oct 2018