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Table 1 Examples of cognitive interviewing according to Tourangeau and Rasinski [17]

From: Genetics in primary care: validating a tool to pre-symptomatically assess common disease risk using an Australian questionnaire on family history

Cognitive probe Explanation Example of interview question
Comprehension What does the respondent believe the question to be asking? Can you repeat the question in your own words?
Recall What types of information does the respondent need to recall in order to answer the question? How did you arrive at your answer?
Decision/judgement process Does the respondent devote sufficient mental effort to answer the question accurately and thoughtfully? How hard was it to answer the question?
Response process Can the respondent match his or her internally generated answer to the response categories given by the survey question? Did you wish to give an answer different to the available answer options?