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Table 1 Proportion of never smokers among COPD patients and associated risk factors

From: The role of environmental exposure to non-cigarette smoke in lung disease

Study center and design Participants Age (years) Proportion of never smokers among COPD patients (%) Risk factors for COPD in never-smokers References
Overall Male Female
Multinational (35 centres, 16 countries; ECRHS) 17,966 20–44 17.0 13.4 21.6 Occupational exposure to vapours, gas, dust, or fumes Cerveri et al. [33]
Malataya, Turkey (CS) 1160 > 18 22.5    Exposure to biomass smoke Gunen et al. [34]
China (CPH; nationwide CS) 50,991 > 20 50.5 10.1 91.7 Exposure to biomass fuel smoke and PM2.5, parental history of respiratory disease Wang et al. [28]
South Africa (nationwide survey) 13,826 > 18 47·6 24.8 61.0 Biomass fuel, occupational exposure, history of pulmonary tuberculosis Ehrlich et al. [35]
Maswa, Tanzania (CS) 869 > 35 62.1   Magitta et al. [36]
Västra Götaland and Norrbotten, Sweden (CS) 1839 21–78 21 Occupational exposure to gas, dust and fumes Hagstad et al. [37]
Copenhegen, Denmark (CS) 68,501 20–100 22.3 18.9 25.5   Thomsen et al. [38]
Multinational 12 countries; population-based survey) 73,745 > 40 36 (24 USA-64 Mexico) 21 49   Landis et al. [39]
  1. ECRHS European Community Respiratory Health Survey; CS cross-sectional study; CPH China Pulmonary Health; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease