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Table 1 This table summarizes the basis, time of onset, advantages and disadvantages of each of the OA models discussed in this paper

From: Pros and cons of mouse models for studying osteoarthritis

Model type Model name and basis Time of onset Pros Cons References
Spontaneous Naturally occurring—occurs as a result of wear and tear over the subject’s life ~ 4–6 months old Most natural progression
No specially trained personnel required
No specialized equipment needed
Long progression time
Low incidence
High cost
Variability in severity and onset
[5, 9, 10]
Spontaneous Genetically modified—occurs as a result of natural wear and tear over the subject’s life with higher susceptibility due to genetic selection ~ 18 weeks old Natural progression
High incidence
No specially trained personnel required
Possibility of assessing impact of genetics in OA development and possible therapeutic targets
Low generalizability
High cost
Possibility of confounding symptoms as a result of genetic alterations
Variability in severity and onset
[5, 10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22]
Surgically induced ACL transection—joint instability ~ 3–10 weeks depending on method High incidence
Rapid progression
Useful in assessing therapies
Need specially trained surgeon
Risk of infection
[5, 6, 10, 24]
Surgically induced Medical meniscectomy—joint instability ~ 4 weeks post-surgery High incidence
Rapid progression
Useful in assessing therapies
Need surgeon
Risk of infection
[5, 6, 10, 25,26,27]
Chemically induced Mono-iodoacetate—joint inflammation and chondrotoxicity ~ 6 weeks from injection High incidence
Rapid progression
Useful for studies in pain behavior
Progression not similar to natural progression in humans
Only useful for studying pain behavior
[5, 10, 32, 33]
Chemically induced Collagenase—joint inflammation and collagen breakdown ~ 3 weeks from injection High incidence
Useful for studies in pain behavior
Useful for studies in potential therapies
Most rapid progression
Progression not similar to natural progression in humans [5, 10, 32, 33]
Non invasive induction Intra-articular tibial plateau fracture—trauma to the knee and joint destabilization ~ 8–10 weeks post injury Useful in replicating acute traumatic OA (i.e. from accidents)
Rapid progression
Severity of the lesions can be altered to compare effects of different
Forces.
Low risk of infection
Repeatable
Need specialized equipment
Not useful in modeling chronic onset OA
[5, 10, 40, 42, 43]
Non-invasive induction Cyclic articular cartilage tibial compression—repeated trauma to the knee and joint destabilization ~ 8–10 weeks post injury Highly effective for studying chronic overuse
Injuries.
Low risk of infection
Repeatable
Need specialized equipment
Lengthy induction
Several cycles needed
Not effective for studying acute PTOA
[5, 10, 40, 42, 43]
Non-invasive induction Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture via tibial compression overload—single powerful trauma and joint destabilization ~ 8–16 weeks post injury Single traumatic load is enough to induce OA
Rapid progression
Lower risk of infection
Repeatable
Need specialized equipment [5, 10, 50, 53]