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Table 2 Molecular marker based disease prognosis in Glioblastoma multiforme

From: Combination therapy to checkmate Glioblastoma: clinical challenges and advances

Markers Genetic/epigenetic alteration Pathway affected Prognosis References
MGMT Promoter methylation DNA mismatch repair Better [125]
EGFR Gene mutation/partial deletion [EGFRΔIII] PI3K/AKT/MAPK Poor [126]
IDH1 Point mutation [R132H] G-CIMP and metabolic alteration Better [127]
G-CIMP Hypermethylation Global epigenetic alteration Better [18, 39, 40]
ATRX Gene mutation Alternative telomere lengthening Poor [45, 46]
TP53 Gene mutation p53 Unknown [42]
PTEN Gene mutation PI3K/AKT/MAPK Poor  
1p19q deletion CIC and FUBP mutation Not clearly known Better [48]
SRC Phosphorylation Integrin signaling Better [49]
RPS6 Phosphorylation mTOR Poor [49]