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Table 2 Chemical classes and the associated metabolites identified with respect to the HCV patients with fibrosis (F3–4), necroinflammation (A2–3) and steatosis (≥33 %)

From: A quantitative metabolomics profiling approach for the noninvasive assessment of liver histology in patients with chronic hepatitis C

Outcome [#spectral features] Chemical classes (n) Metabolites
Fibrosis (F3–4) [21] Acyl Glycine (1) N-acetylglycine
Amino acids (10) Asparagine, creatine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, methionine, methylhistidine, N-acetylaspartate, threonine, tyrosine
Amino ketones (1) Urea
Dicarboxylic acid (1) Methylsuccinate
Fatty acids (2) Formate, propionate
Hydroxy acids (1) 2-Hydroxyisovalerate
Keto-acids (1) 2-Oxoisocaproate
Nucleoside Analogue (1) Adenosine
Polyamines (1) Methylguanidine
Purine/purine deivatives (2) 1,7-Dimethylxanthine, Caffeine
Necroinflammation (A2–3) [17] Acyl glycine (1) N-Acetylglycine
Alcohols (1) Ethanol
Aliphatic and aryl amines (1) Dimethylamine
Amino acids (6) Creatine, histidine, glutamate, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine
Dicarboxylic acid (3) Methylsuccinate, suberate, succinate
Quaternary amines (1) O-acetylcarnitine
Nucleoside analogue (1) Adenosine
Purine/purine derivatives (2) 1,7-Dimethylxanthine, caffeine
Tricarboxylic acid (1) Citrate
Steatosis (≥33 %) [16] Amino acids (6) Asparagine, creatine, creatinine, L-glutamate, SERINE, tryptophan
Carbohydrates (1) d-Mannose
Dicarboxylic acid (4) 2-Oxoglutarate, methylsuccinate, suberate, succinate
Hydroxy acids (2) 3-Hydroxybutyrate, lactate
Keto-acids (2) Pyruvate
Ketones (1) Acetone
Nucleoside analogues (1) Adenosine