Skip to main content


Fig. 2 | Clinical and Translational Medicine

Fig. 2

From: Horizontal transfer of RNA and proteins between cells by extracellular microvesicles: 14 years later

Fig. 2

Different possible approaches to generating more efficient pro-regenerative ExMVs. ExMVs could be harvested from large-scale in vitro cultures of producing cell lines—for example, mesenchymal stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells. Such cell lines may be modified to obtain ExMVs that do not express HLA antigens (a), are enriched in growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and bioactive lipids that promote regeneration of damaged organs (b), are enriched in mRNA and regulatory miRNA facilitating regeneration of damaged tissues and/or promoting angiogenesis (c), or display on their surface molecules that direct them to, and cause them to be retained in, damaged tissues (d) (adapted from Ratajczak et al. [16])

Back to article page