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Table 2 Normal ranges for vital signs in neonatal piglets

From: A novel, clinically relevant use of a piglet model to study the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain

Parameter Normal range Suggested treatment of abnormalities
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 65–95 Intraoperative hypotension should be treated with an isotonic fluid bolus, 10–20 mL/kg titrated to effect. Hypertension likely represents inadequate depth of anesthesia, and anesthetic can be deepened with buprenorphine or other narcotic without confounding experimental results
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 35–55
Heart rate (beats per minute) 120–200 Bradycardia is rare in the absence of hypoxia. Tachycardia likely represents inadequate depth of anesthesia, and anesthetic can be deepened with buprenorphine or other narcotic without confounding experimental results
Oxygen saturation (%) 90–100 Most piglets will require pressure support if respiration is spontaneous under anesthesia. Increasing pressure support or positive-end expiratory pressure often corrects hypoxia in anesthetized piglets
Respiratory rate (breaths per minute ) 30–60 Postoperatively, piglets with tachypnea often need additional pain medication. In LPS-treated piglets, tachypnea is commonly seen with the acute phase response and requires no treatment
End-tidal carbon dioxide (mmHg) 35–45 Titrate ventilator support as indicated
Core tempature (°C) 101–103 Hypothermia can be avoided by housing piglets in temperature-controlled cages and by maintaining active warming during surgery. Hyperthermia may be sign of malignant hyperthermia and should be taken seriously. Fever is common in LPS treated animals, and requires no treatment