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Table 1 Lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma mutations, incidence, downstream effects, and targeted therapies

From: Clinical potential of gene mutations in lung cancer

Genetic alterations Incidence (%) Downstream effect Targeted therapya Sources
Adenocarcinomas
 EGFR (mut) ~15 ↑ Proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and metastasis Gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, AZD9291, AZD8931 [10, 11]
 EML4-ALK (fus) 2–7 ↑Proliferation, survival, and migration Crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib [11, 79, 80]
 KRAS (mut) ~30 ↑ Chemoresistance, proliferation, and survival N/A [10]
 MET (amp) 3–5 ↑ Cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis Tivantinib, crizotinib cabozantinib, ornatuzumab [11, 13, 24, 81]
 ROS1 (fus) 1–2 ↑ Survival Foretinib & crizotinib [13, 24]
 RET (fus) 1–2 ↑Proliferation Carbozantinib, vandetanib, ponatinib [11]
 BRAF (mut) 5–10 ↑ Resistance to EGFR inhibitors, proliferation, and survival Debrafenib, sorafenib [10, 24]
 TP53 (mut) 46 ↑ Growth, ↓ apoptosis N/A [10, 11]
Squamous cell carcinomas
 FGFR1 (amp) 16–25 ↑ Proliferation, survival, and chemoresistance; ↓ patient prognosis Nintendanib, ponatinib, AZD4547, dovitinib [9, 11, 12, 82]
 PIK3CA (mut) 8–18 ↑ Proliferation and survival Buparlisib, PX-866, BYL719, GDC-0941 or inhibitors for AKT: AZD5363, MK-2206 [9, 11, 13, 24, 82]
 DDR2 (mut) 4 ↑ Cell migration, invasion, proliferation, and survival Dasatinib [9, 13]
 MET (amp) 3 ↑ Cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis Tivantinib, crizotinib cabozantinib, onartuzumab [12, 24, 81]
 SOX2 21 ↑ Proliferation N/A [9]
 PTEN (mut & del) 15–29 ↑PI3K signaling, proliferation, and survival PI3K inhibitors: buparlisib, PX-866, BYL719, GDC-0941 or inhibitors for AKT: AZD5363, MK-2206 [9, 11, 24, 82]
 TP53 (mut) 81 ↑ Growth, ↓ apoptosis N/A [9, 11, 12]
 CDKN2A (del) 51 ↑ Growth N/A [9]
  1. N/A not available, currently not able to target efficiently with drugs, Mut mutations, Del deletions, Amp amplifications, Fus fusions
  2. aFor detailed review of targeted drugs and clinical trials see [2, 11, 13, 24]