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Table 1 EMT biomarkers currently under evaluation in the translational setting

From: The translational significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in head and neck cancer

Marker Prognosis Viral-association Biomarker type Study power Concomitant markers Reference (s)
Classic EMT pathways implicited
Snail 1 Poor PFS;⬆ TNM; ⬆ Metastasis; Proinflammatory EBV47 IHC N = 147 [49] NBS; HIF1α (Hypoxia) E-/N Cadherin (Class switching) [49]-[51]
In vitro N = 733 [51]
N = 42 [50]
Snail 2 (Slug) ⬆ TNM; ⬆ Metastasis; ⬆ OS   IHC N = 119 [52] HIF1α [52],[53]
In vitro
TWIST Poor PFS; ⬆ Metastasis; ⬆ OS; ⬆Positive Nodal status   IHC N = 147 [49] HIF1α; Snail [49],[54],[55]
In vitro N = 109 [54]
N = 69 [55]
SIP1 ⬆ Delayed-type neck metastasis   IHC N = 37 [56]   [56]
In vitro
ZEB --   In vitro --   
Canonical Developmental Pathways Implicated
Notch/Jagged/DLL4 --   Sequencing N = 56 [57] Hes/Hey1 [57]
Wnt/β-Catenin --   IHC N = 374 [58]   [58]
In vitro
Shh/GLI-1 ⬆ Cetuximab resistance   In vitro    [59]
Viral EMT Pathways Implicated
Vimentin -- HPV IHC N = 69 [55] TWIST1/2; Snail; Slug [55]
In vitro
TGF-β -- HPV IHC N = 140 [60] TGFβR1/R2 [60],[61]
In vitro N = 200 [61]
  1. Note: Evidence supporting ZEB1, a key EMT transcription factor, is lacking in HNC.