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Table 1 Small molecules and pancreatic β-cell regeneration

From: Cellular reprogramming for pancreatic β-cell regeneration: clinical potential of small molecule control

Chemical Target Source Reference Notes
Indolactam V Pancreas progenitor Human/mouse definitive endoderm [62] PKC activator.
Induce definitive endoderm (IDE 1 (above) and IDE 2 (below) Endoderm Mouse ESCs [63] TGF-β activator. Enables induction of pancreatic progenitors from mESCs with Indolactam V

Retinoic acid (RA) Pancreatic cells, β-cells Definitive endoderm [64, 65]  
Swertisin Islet-like cell clusters Mouse NIH3T3 cells [66]  
WS6 - β-cells [67] IκB kinase pathway activator (Promotes proliferation of β cells)
BRD7552 - Human islets and ductal cells [68] PDX1 expression.
5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) Pancreatic endocrine cells PANC-1 human ductal cell line [69] DNA methylation inhibitor.
  1. Abbreviations, PKC protein kinase C, ESCs embryonic stem cells, TGF-β transforming growth factor β.